1. haitianhistory:

    Today’s term/concept is: HISTORIOGRAPHY 

    So, what does this word mean in the context of historical research? 

    Historiography usually refers to all the work on a given historical topic and/or the study of how historians have dealt with historical subject matters.

    According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy “In its most general sense, the term refers to the study of historians’ methods and practices. Moreover, “historiography becomes itself historical when we recognize that these frameworks of assumptions about historical knowledge and reasoning change over time. On this assumption, the history of historical thinking and writing is itself an interesting subject. How did historians of various periods in human history conduct their study and presentation of history?" (Source)

    Trent University defines historiography as “a summary of the historical writings on a particular topic … It identifies the major thinkers and arguments, and establishes connections between them. If there have been major changes in the way a particular topic has been approached over time, the historiography identifies them.” (Source)

    So, to put it plainly, historiography can be understood as the the body of historical writing on a topic and the history of how historians have approached a particular topic over time. 

    ⇒ For example, if you encounter in your readings: “The Historiography on the Haitian Revolution is very large” It usually means → ”Lots of stuff have been written about the Haitian Revolution.”

    Historiography of course, does not only refer to the grouping of works on a topic, as we have seen already, it also focuses on the changes in historical methodology. 

    So, historiography evolves over time? Why?

    Historians can rarely escape their own time. This is not to say that the historical discipline is entirely subjective, rather, this is to suggest that historians do not write in vacuums. Historiographical essays are thus important because they help us see how the methodology in studying a particular topic has changed over time. 

    ⇒ For example, in the 1960s, most (but not all) historians favoured an approach that gave a significant importance to economy and were often interested in making Marxist and class-based analysis of History. This is not necessarily true today when many historians prefer an analysis which gives more space to culture (hence, you will often hear references to a "cultural" or "linguistic turn" in History). 

    Now, this change in the way historians understand events rarely means they debate over the occurrence of those events (although, it does happen), — what it actually means is that historians find that some approches highlight factors that better explain historical events than others. Historians’ major task is not simply to narrate events, their work also involves looking at the relationship between various instances (that is, their causal relationship) in explaining historical events. (To make this text more digestible, I will save you a discussion on the problems historians face with narration and causality, just remember that the two have an influence on historiography.)

    So, as just mentioned, historiography helps us see how historical writing changes, in part, because historians often take different approches with time.

    ⇒ For example, for a long time, the dominent historiography on the causes of World War I suggested that the Great War was fought between European powers for colonies (i.e. the surproduction of goods forced European capitalist to pressure their own government to support their adventures in foreign lands in search of the new markets). Other historians, who do not necessarily completely reject the previous explanation, argue however that nationalism is better in articulating the drive to go to war. Historiography also suggest that we should not neglect the importance of European alliance system before WWI (i.e. the “domino effect”). More importantly, most (but not all) historians who have favoured the colonies and market explanation tended to be further towards the left (Marxist, Leninist and so on) in their analysis. (Notice “tended’ is in italics.)

    At any rate, historiography is a complex term but it is necessary to understand it in order to comprehend some of the work historians do (and to grasp the real nature of most of their disputes). 

    To recapitulate, in most instances, historiography is:

    • The body of work on a particular historical topic (i.e. : the historiography on the Haitian Revolution, the 20th century historiography on the French Revolution, the historiography on Thomas Jefferson…)
    • The “history of history” (the study how historians have dealt with particular topics, with a special importance given to the context in which their work was written. This usually emplies analyzing the approach(es) historians have favoured to write about History (i.e.: was this historian sensible to the Marxist turn in History, the Postmodern turn in History, the Cultural turn in History, the Subaltern and Postcolonial turn in History …?))

    Warning: Before using a term, always make sure you are comfortable with its meaning and that it won’t be placed in your text simply as an ornament. If unsure, consult an appropriate dictionary or a Professor. 

    (via asianhistory)

  2. fastcompany:

    Tweaking the UX of our social media tools could help readers better understand fast-moving news.

    The Boston Marathon bombings. Tornadoes in the Midwest. Now, tragically, Ferguson. When serious breaking news happens, many of us turn to social media—especially Twitter—to keep up and get the most detailed information we can as quickly as possible. But the events in Missouri these last few weeks made me think about the deficiencies of our current information tools, and how we might improve the social, breaking news experience.

    Read More>

  3. globalvoices:

    Prayuth Chan-ocha is Thailand’s new prime minister. He is also the army chief who staged a coup last May and appointed himself as head of the coup government.

    Despite having no experience in governance, Prayuth assumed several positions as head of the NCPO. He appointed himself as chairman of the Board of Investment, the National Energy Policy Committee, and the Special Economic Zone Development Committee.

    One Person Holds the Three Most Powerful Positions in Thailand Today


  4. "When a Vassar girl takes a shine to another, she straightway enters upon a regular course of bouquet sendings, interspersed with tinted notes, mysterious packages of “Ridley’s Mixed Candies,” locks of hair perhaps, and many other tender tokens, until at last the object of her attentions is captured, the two women become inseparable, and the aggressor is considered by her circle of acquaintances as — smashed."
    — This 1893 report from the Yale student newspaper is part of the long history of romantic friendship (via explore-blog)

    (via hellotailor)


  7. (Source: mconideas)

  8. plantbaby420:

    *mic drop*

    (via asfadedasmyjeans)


  9. "Thanks, asshole."
    — Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand, to a male Congressman who told her to exercise so she wouldn’t become “porky.”
    (via prettayprettaygood)
  10. abcnews:

    Boston Marathon bombing survivor weds nurse he met during his recovery: http://abcn.ws/1tcqOxx


  11. archaeologicalnews:

    ZHENGZHOU, Aug. 27 — Archaeologists in central China’s Henan Province have excavated a large neolithic settlement complete with moats and a cemetery.

    The Shanggangyang Site covers an area of 120,000 square meters and sits along a river in Zhengzhou, capital of Henan, dating 5,000 to 6,000 years…

  12. mothernaturenetwork:

    Drone films dozens of wild dolphins surfing together
    A quadcopter spied this pod of bottlenose dolphins riding waves near Esperance, Western Australia.


  13. F-15 jet crashes in Virginia


    WVECAn F-15 fighter jet crashed Wednesday in Augusta County, Virginia. The status of the pilot is unknown at this time.

    The jet is from the Massachusetts Air National Guard. No injuries were reported on the ground.

    Follow the latest at Breaking News


  14. holygoddamnshitballs:

    Daily Show host Jon Stewart hammered Fox News on Tuesday for their various attempts to discuss the fatal shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown — like Sean Hannity telling his radio show audience that he puts police officers at ease during traffic stops by showing them his gun.

    (via invisiblelad)

  15. offbeatchina:

    More hybrid transportation from China. Farmer in Jilin invented electronic horse.